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科学家发现黑洞可能会达到“惊人的大”尺寸

科学家发现黑洞可能会达到“惊人的大”尺寸

 

Scientists find black holes could reach 'stupendously large' sizes

科学家发现黑洞可能会达到惊人的大尺寸


by Queen Mary, University of London

伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院


20210122175246107869.png 

This computer-simulated image shows a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy. The black region in the center represents the black hole’s event horizon, where no light can escape the massive object’s gravitational grip. The black hole’s powerful gravity distorts space around it like a funhouse mirror. Light from background stars is stretched and smeared as the stars skim by the black hole. Credits: NASA, ESA, and D. Coe, J. Anderson, and R. van der Marel (STScI)

这个计算机模拟的图像显示了一个位于银河系核心的超大质量黑洞。中心的黑色区域表示黑洞的事件视界,在该区域中没有任何光线可以逃离大型物体的重力抓地力。黑洞强大的引力使它周围的空间像游乐园镜子一样扭曲。当星空掠过黑洞时,背景恒星发出的光线会被拉伸并涂抹。鸣谢:NASAESAD. CoeJAndersonR. van der MarelSTScI

 

A recent study suggests the possible existence of 'stupendously large black holes' or SLABS, even larger than the supermassive black holes already observed in the centers of galaxies.

最近的一项研究表明,可能存在巨大的黑洞SLABS,甚至比星系中心已经观测到的超大质量黑洞还要大。

 

The research, led by Queen Mary Emeritus Professor Bernard Carr in the School of Physics and Astronomy, together with F. Kühnel (Münich) and L. Visinelli (Frascati), investigated how these SLABs could form and potential limits to their size.

由物理与天文学学院名誉玛丽皇后大学名誉教授伯纳德·卡尔(Bernard Carr)以及弗·库纳(F.Kühnel)(慕尼黑)和维西内利(L.Visinelli)(弗拉斯卡蒂(Frascati))共同进行的这项研究,研究了这些SLAB的形成方式及其潜在的尺寸极限。

 

Whilst there is evidence of the existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei— with masses from a million to ten billion times that of the Sun—previous studies have suggested an upper limit to their size due to our current view on how such black holes form and grow.

尽管有证据表明银河原子核中存在超大质量黑洞(SMBH),其质量是太阳的一百万至一百亿倍,但由于我们目前对这种现象的看法,先前的研究提出了它们的大小上限黑洞形成并成长。

 

The existence of SLABS even larger than this could provide researchers with a powerful tool for cosmological tests and improve our understanding of the early Universe.

SLABS的存在甚至更大,它可以为研究人员提供进行宇宙学测试的强大工具,并增进我们对早期宇宙的理解。

 

Challenging existing ideas

挑战现有想法


It has widely been thought that SMBHs form within a host galaxy and grow to their large sizes by swallowing stars and gas from their surroundings or merging with other black holes. In this case, there is an upper limit, somewhat above ten billion solar masses, on their mass.

人们普遍认为,SMBHs是在宿主星系中形成的,并通过吞噬周围环境中的恒星和气体或与其他黑洞合并而增长为大尺寸。在这种情况下,存在一个上限,其质量略高于一百亿个太阳能质量。

 

In this study, the researchers propose another possibility for how SMBHs could form, which might evade this limit. They suggest that such SLABs could be 'primordial," forming in the early Universe, and well before galaxies.

在这项研究中,研究人员提出了另一种可能如何形成SMBH的可能性,这可能会规避这一限制。他们认为这样的SLAB可能是原始的,形成于宇宙的早期,也早于星系。

 

As 'primordial' black holes don't form from a collapsing star, they could have a wide range of masses, including very small and stupendously large ones.

由于不是由坍缩的恒星形成原始黑洞,因此它们可能具有多种质量,包括非常小的和非常大的质量。

 

Professor Bernard Carr said: "We already know that black holes exist over a vast range of masses, with a SMBH of four million solar masses residing at the center of our own galaxy. Whilst there isn't currently evidence for the existence of SLABs, it's conceivable that they could exist and they might also reside outside galaxies in intergalactic space, with interesting observational consequences. However, surprisingly, the idea of SLABs has largely been neglected until now."

伯纳德·卡尔教授说:我们已经知道黑洞存在于大范围的质量中,SMBH400万个太阳质量位于我们自己的银河系中心。尽管目前尚无SLAB存在的证据,可以想象它们可能存在,也可能居住在星际空间中的星系之外,产生有趣的观测结果。然而,令人惊讶的是,到目前为止,SLAB的概念一直被忽略。

 

"We've proposed options for how these SLABs might form, and hope that our work will begin to motivate discussions amongst the community."

我们就这些SLAB的形成方式提出了建议,并希望我们的工作将开始激发社区之间的讨论。

 

Understanding dark matter

了解暗物质

 

Dark matter is thought to make up around 80 percent of the ordinary mass of the Universe. Whilst we can't see it, researchers think dark matter exists because of its gravitational effects on visible matter, such as stars and galaxies. However, we still don't know what the dark matter is.

人们认为暗物质约占宇宙普通物质的80%。尽管我们看不到它,但研究人员认为存在暗物质是因为暗物质对诸如恒星和星系的可见物质具有引力作用。但是,我们仍然不知道暗物质是什么。

 

Primordial black holes are one of the potential candidates. The idea of their existence can be traced back to the 1970s when Professor Carr and Professor Stephen Hawking suggested that in the first moments of the Universe fluctuations in its density could have resulted in some regions collapsing into black holes.

原始黑洞是潜在的候选者之一。它们存在的想法可以追溯到1970年代,当时卡尔教授和斯蒂芬·霍金教授提出,在宇宙的最初时刻,其密度的波动可能导致某些区域坍塌成黑洞。

 

"SLABs themselves could not provide the dark matter," said Professor Carr, "but if they exist at all, it would have important implications for the early Universe and would make it plausible that lighter primordial black holes might do so."

卡尔教授说:“ SLAB本身无法提供暗物质,但是,如果它们完全存在,它将对早期的宇宙产生重要影响,并且使得较轻的原始黑洞可能会这样做。


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