物理学 双语译文 英语翻译
2021-01-23 17:00:01

Light-controlled Higgs modes found in superconductors; potential sensor, computing uses


by Iowa State University



This illustration shows light at trillions of pulses per second (red flash) accessing and controlling Higgs modes (gold balls) in an iron- based superconductor. Even at different energy bands, the Higgs modes interact with each other (white smoke). Credit: Illustration courtesy of Jigang Wang.



Even if you weren't a physics major, you've probably heard something about the Higgs boson.



There was the title of a 1993 book by Nobel laureate Leon Lederman that dubbed the Higgs "The God Particle." There was the search for the Higgs particle that launched after 2009's first collisions inside the Large Hadron Collider in Europe. There was the 2013 announcement that Peter Higgs and Francois Englert won the Nobel Prize in Physics for independently theorizing in 1964 that a fundamental particle—the Higgs—is the source of mass in subatomic particles, making the universe as we know it possible.

1993年,诺贝尔奖获得者莱昂·莱德曼(Leon Lederman)的书名叫希格斯上帝粒子。搜寻希格斯粒子是在2009年欧洲大型强子对撞机首次碰撞后启动的。 2013年,彼得·希格斯(Peter Higgs)和弗朗索瓦·恩格勒特(Francois Englert)宣布以1964年的独立理论认为基本粒子希格斯是亚原子粒子的质量来源而获得了诺贝尔物理学奖,这使我们知道的宇宙成为可能。


(Plus, there are the Iowa State University physicists on the author list of a 2012 research paper describing how the ATLAS Experiment at the collider observed a new particle later confirmed to be the Higgs.)



And now Jigang Wang, a professor of physics and astronomy at Iowa State and a senior scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, and a team of researchers have discovered a form of the famous particle within a superconductor, a material capable of conducting electricity without resistance, generally at very cold temperatures.



Wang and his collaborators—including Chang-Beom Eom, the Raymond R. Holton Chair for Engineering and Theodore H. Geballe Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Ilias Perakis, professor and chair of physics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; and Eric Hellstrom, professor and interim chair of mechanical engineering at Florida State University—report the details in a paper recently published online by the journal Nature Communications.

Wang和他的合作者-包括Chang-Beom EomRaymond R. Holton工程学系主任和Theodore H. Geballe,威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校教授;伊利亚斯·佩拉基斯(Ilias Perakis),阿拉巴马大学伯明翰分校教授兼物理学教授;佛罗里达州立大学机械工程学教授兼临时主席埃里克·赫尔斯特罗姆(Eric Hellstrom)在《自然通讯》杂志最近在线发表的一篇论文中报告了细节。


They write that in lab experiments they've found a short-lived "Higgs mode" within iron-based, high-temperature (but still very cold), multi-energy band, unconventional superconductors.



A quantum discovery


This Higgs mode is a state of matter found at the quantum scale of atoms, their electronic states and energetic excitations. The mode can be accessed and controlled by laser light flashing on the superconductor at terahertz frequencies of trillions of pulses per second. The Higgs modes can be created within different energy bands and still interact with each other.



Wang said this Higgs mode within a superconductor could potentially be used to develop new quantum sensors.



"It's just like the Large Hadron Collider can use the Higgs particle to detect dark energy or antimatter to help us understand the origin of the universe," Wang said. "And our Higgs mode sensors on the table-top have the potential help us discover the hidden secrets of quantum states of matter."

王说:就像大型强子对撞机可以利用希格斯粒子探测暗能量或反物质来帮助我们了解宇宙的起源一样。” “桌面上的希格斯模式传感器有潜力帮助我们发现物质量子态的秘密。


That understanding, Wang said, could advance a new "quantum revolution" for high-speed computing and information technologies.



"It's one way this exotic, strange, quantum world can be applied to real life," Wang said.



Light control of superconductors


The project takes a three-pronged approach to accessing and understanding the special properties, such as this Higgs mode, hidden within superconductors:



Wang's research group uses a tool called quantum terahertz spectroscopy to visualize and steer pairs of electrons moving through a superconductor. The tool uses laser flashes as a control knob to accelerate supercurrents and access new and potentially useful quantum states of matter.



Eom's group developed the synthesis technique that produces crystalline thin films of the iron-based superconductor with high enough quality to reveal the Higgs mode. Hellstrom's group developed deposition sources for the iron-based superconducting thin film development.

Eom的小组开发了一种合成技术,该技术可以生产出足够高的质量以显示希格斯模式的铁基超导体晶体薄膜。 Hellstrom的小组开发了用于铁基超导薄膜开发的沉积源。


Perakis' group led the development of quantum models and theories to explain the results of the experiments and to simulate the salient features that come from the Higgs mode.



The work has been supported by a grant to Wang from the National Science Foundation and grants to Eom and Perakis from the U.S. Department of Energy.

这项工作得到了美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)对王的资助以及美国能源部对EomPerakis的资助。


"Interdisciplinary science is the key here," Perakis said. "We have quantum physics, materials science and engineering, condensed matter physics, lasers and photonics with inspirations from fundamental, high-energy and particle physics."

Perakis说:跨学科科学是这里的关键。” “我们拥有量子物理学,材料科学与工程,凝聚态物理学,激光和光子学,其灵感来自基础,高能和粒子物理学。


There are good, practical reasons for researchers in all those fields to work together on the project. In this case, students from the four research groups worked together with their advisors to accomplish this discovery.



"Scientists and engineers," Wang wrote in a research summary, "have recently come to realize that certain materials, such as superconductors, have properties that can be exploited for applications in quantum information and energy science, e.g., processing, recording, storage and communication."

Wang在研究摘要中写道:科学家和工程师最近才意识到某些材料,例如超导体,具有可用于量子信息和能源科学的特性,例如处理,记录,存储和存储 通讯。








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