Astronomers spot bizarre, never-before-seen activity from one of the strongest magnets in the universe天文学家从宇宙中最强的磁铁之一发现奇异的,前所未有的活动by ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave DiscoveryARC引力波发现卓越中心Artist’s impression of the active magnetar Swift J1818.0-1607. Credit: Carl Knox, OzGrav.艺术家对主动式磁星雨燕J1818.0-1607的印象。图片来源:卡尔·诺克斯(OlGrav)。Astronomers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) and CSIRO have just observed bizarre, never-seen-before behavio
2021-02-04 18:41:20
How do electrons close to Earth reach almost the speed of light?接近地球的电子如何达到几乎光速? by Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres亥姆霍兹德国研究中心协会The contours in color show the intensities of the radiation belts. Grey lines show the trajectories of the relativistic electrons in the radiation belts. Concentric circular lines show the trajectory of scientific satellites traversing this dangerous region in space. Credit: Ingo Michaelis and Yuri Shprits, GFZ颜色轮廓显示了辐射带的强度。灰线显示了辐射带中相对论电子的轨迹。同心圆线表
2021-02-04 17:53:30
Physicists develop record-breaking source for single photons物理学家为单光子开发了创纪录的光源by University of Basel巴塞尔大学The new single-photon source is based on excitation of a quantum dot (shown as a bulge on the bottom left), which then emits photons. A micro-cavity ensures that the photons are guided into an optical fiber and emerge at its end. Credit: University of Basel, Department of Physics新的单光子源基于量子点的激发(在左下角显示为凸起),然后发射光子。微腔确保将光子导入光纤并在其末端出射。图片来源:巴塞尔大学物理系 Researchers at the University of Basel and Ruhr University Bochum have developed a source of single photons that can produce billions of these quantum particles per second. With its record- breaking efficiency, the photon source represents a new and powerful building-block for quantum technologies.巴塞尔大学和波鸿鲁尔大学的研究人员已经开发出一种单光子源,每秒可以产生数十亿个这样的量子粒子。光子源凭借其破纪录的效率,代表了量子技术的一个强大的新组成部分。Quantum cryptography promises absolutely secure communications. A key component here are strings of single photons. Information can be stored in the quantum states of these light particles and transmitted over long distances. In the future, remote quantum processors will communicate with each other via single photons. And perhaps the processor itself will use photons as quantum bits for computing.量子密码术保证绝对安全的通信。这里的关键组件是单光子串。信息可以存储在这些光粒子的量子状态中,并可以长距离传输。将来,远程量子处理器将通过单个光子相互通信。也许处理器本身将使用光子作为计算的量子位。A basic prerequisite for such applications, however, is an efficient source of single photons. A research team led by Professor Richard Warburton, Natasha Tomm and Dr. Alisa Javadi from the University of Basel, together with colleagues from Bochum, now reports in the journal Nature Nanotechnology on the development of a single-photon source that significantly surpasses previously known systems in terms of efficiency.但是,此类应用的基本先决条件是有效的单光子源。由巴塞尔大学的Richard Warburton教授,Natasha Tomm和Alisa Javadi博士以及Bochum的同事领导的研究小组现在在《自然纳米技术》杂志上报道了单光子源的发展,该光子源的发展大大超越了先前已知的系统在效率方面。 "Funnel" guides light particles“漏斗”引导轻粒子Each photon is created by exciting a single "artificial atom" (a quantum dot) inside a semiconductor. Usually, these photons leave the quantum dot in all possible directions and thus a large fraction is lost. In the photon source now presented, the researchers have solved this problem by positioning the quantum dot inside a "funnel" to send all photons in a specific direction.通过激发半导体内部的单个“人工原子”(量子点)来创建每个光子。通常,这些光子在所有可能的方向上离开量子点,因此损失了很大一部分。在现在提出的光子源中,研究人员通过将量子点放置在“漏斗”中以将所有光子按特定方向发送来解决了这个问题。The funnel is a novel micro-cavity that represents the real innovation of the research team: The micro-cavity captures almost all of the photons and then directs them into an optical fiber. The photons, each about two centimeters long, emerge at the end of an optical fiber.漏斗是一种新颖的微腔,代表了研究团队的真正创新:微腔捕获几乎所有的光子,然后将它们引导到光纤中。每个大约两厘米长的光子出现在光纤的末端。The efficiency of the entire system—that is, the probability that excitation of the quantum dot actually results in a usable photon—is 57 percent, more than double that of previous single- photon sources. "This is a really special moment," explains lead author Richard Warburton. "We've known for a year or two what's possible in principle. Now we've succeeded in putting our ideas into practice."整个系统的效率(即量子点的激发实际上产生可用光子的概率)为57%,是以前的单光子源的两倍以上。主要作者理查德·沃伯顿(Richard Warburton)解释说:“这是一个非常特殊的时刻。 “我们已经知道原则上可能的一两年了。现在我们已经成功地将我们的想法付诸实践。” Enormous increase in computing power极大地提高了计算能力The increase in efficiency has significant consequences, Warburton adds: "increasing the efficiency of single photon creation by a factor of two adds up to an overall improvement of a factor of one million for a string of, say, 20 photons. In the future, we'd like to make our single- photon source even better: We'd like to simplify it and pursue some of its myriad applications in quantum cryptography, quantum computing and other technologies."Warburton补充说,效率的提高将产生重大后果:“将单个光子的创建效率提高两倍,一串20个光子的总效率将提高一百万。在未来,我们希望使我们的单光子源更好:我们希望简化它,并在量子密码学,量子计算和其他技术中追求其无数的应用。”点击:查看更多物理学文章 查看更多分类文章 使用双语译文翻译免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:Phys
2021-02-03 20:16:05
Mineral often found on Mars discovered deep in Antarctic ice常在火星上发现的矿物发现于南极冰层深处by Bob Yirka , Phys.org鲍勃·伊尔卡(Bob Yirka),Phys.org The morphology of mineral grains in deep TALDICE investigated through SEM. Credit: Nature Communications (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-20705-z通过扫描电镜(SEM)研究了深层TALDICE中矿物晶粒的形态。图片来源:Nature Communications(2021)。 DOI:10.1038 / s41467-020-20705-z An international team of researchers has found evidence of the mineral jarosite in ice cores extracted from Antarctica. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the researchers describe how the discovery came about and why they believe it could bolster theories regarding the presence of the same mineral on the surface of Mars.一个国际研究人员小组发现了从南极洲提取的冰芯中的矿物黄钾铁矾的证据。在发表于《自然通讯》杂志上的论文中,研究人员描述了这一发现是如何产生的,以及为什么他们相信该发现可以支持有关火星表面存在相同矿物的理论。 Jarosite is very rarely found on Earth—it is generally seen in mining waste that has been exposed to air and rain. The researchers with this new effort were not looking for it in their ice cores—they were focused on minerals in deep ice cores that might help to better understand ice age cycles. But when they came across the yellow- brown mineral, their interest was piqued. X-ray absorption testing and electron microscopy showed it be jarosite.黄铁矿在地球上很少见-通常在暴露于空气和雨水的采矿废物中看到。做出这项新努力的研究人员并没有在冰芯中寻找它,而是专注于深冰芯中的矿物质,这些矿物质可能有助于更好地了解冰龄周期。但是,当他们遇到黄褐色的矿物时,他们的兴趣激起了。 X射线吸收测试和电子显微镜显示它是黄钾铁矾。 The researchers suggest the mineral formed in ice pockets that also held small amounts of dust. Under the ice, they had eroded, the researchers noted. The finding brought to mind another site where jarosite is found—the surface of Mars. It was found there by the Opportunity rover back in 2004 and has been found to be abundant. Finding jarosite on Mars created a lot of excitement at NASA and around the world, because prior research had shown that water must be present for jarosite formation.研究人员认为,冰袋中形成的矿物质还含有少量的灰尘。研究人员指出,它们在冰下侵蚀了。这一发现使我想到了另一个发现黄钾铁矾的地点-火星表面。早在2004年,Opportunity流浪者就在那发现了它,并且发现它很丰富。在火星上发现黄钾铁矾在NASA和全世界引起了极大的兴趣,因为先前的研究表明,形成黄钾铁矾必须存在水。 The discovery of jarosite on Mars led scientists to come up with theories to explain how it might have originated. Some suggested it might have been left behind as salty water evaporated. Others suggested that Mars might have been covered by a massive ice blanket billons of years ago. They further suggested that jarosite could have formed in ice pockets. That would have been possible, they noted, if the ice blanket grew slowly with dust blowing onto it. At the time the theory was formulated, it was difficult to test because it had never been found to form that way anywhere else, including Earth. 在火星上发现的黄钾铁矾导致科学家提出了一些理论来解释其起源。一些人认为,咸水蒸发后可能会留下来。其他人则认为,火星可能在数年前被巨大的冰盖巨石覆盖。他们进一步认为,黄钾铁矾可能在冰袋中形成。他们指出,如果冰盖缓慢地生长并且上面吹着灰尘,那将是可能的。在提出该理论时,很难进行测试,因为从未发现它能以其他方式形成,包括地球。 Now that jarosite has been found deep in Antarctic ice, the latter theory will likely become the most prominent. The researchers note that the theory still has one glitch—the ice in Antarctica contains very small amounts of jarosite—on Mars, the mineral is found in large slabs. The researchers suggest that the difference might be explained by the huge amounts of dust on the Martian surface.现在已经在南极冰层深处发现了黄钾铁矾,后一种理论可能会成为最突出的理论。研究人员指出,该理论仍然存在一个小问题-南极洲的冰中含有很少量的黄钾铁矾-在火星上,这种矿物存在于大平板中。研究人员认为,这种差异可能是由火星表面上大量的尘埃所解释的。点击:查看更多太空探索文章 查看更多生物学文章 使用PDF文档翻译功能免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:phys
2021-02-01 19:20:46
Researchers guide a single ion through a Bose-Einstein condensate研究人员引导单个离子通过Bose-Einstein冷凝物by University of Stuttgart斯图加特大学The path of the positively charged ion (yellow) through the BEC (green) can still only be depicted artistically. An ion microscope currently being developed at the Fifth Institute of Physics at the University of Stuttgart will make this path directly visible with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers. Credit: University of Stuttgart/PI5, Celina Brandes 带正电的离子(黄
2021-01-26 19:46:24
Record-breaking laser link could provide test of Einstein's theory by International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research打破纪录的激光链路可以为国际射电天文学研究中心提供爱因斯坦理论的检验由国际射电天文学研究中心提供 UWA's rooftop observatory. Credit: ICRAR西澳大学的屋顶天文台。信用:ICRAR Scientists from the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) and the University of Western Australia (UWA) have set a world record for the most stable transmission of a laser signal through the atmosphere.国际射电天文学研究中心(ICRAR)和西澳大利亚大学(UWA)的科学家为激光信号在大气中的最稳定传输创造了世界纪录。In a study published today in the journal Nature Communications, Australian researchers teamed up with researchers from the French National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) and the French metrology lab Systèmes de Référence Temps-Espace (SYRTE) at Paris Observatory.在今天发表在《自然通讯》杂志上的一项研究中,澳大利亚研究人员与来自法国国家太空研究中心(CNES)和法国巴黎天文台空间实验室SystèmesdeRéférenceTemps-Espace(SYRTE)的研究人员合作。The team set the world record for the most stable laser transmission by combining the Aussies' phase stabilization technology with advanced self-guiding optical terminals. Together, these technologies allowed laser signals to be sent from one point to another without interference from the atmosphere.该团队结合了澳大利亚的相位稳定技术和先进的自导光学终端,创造了最稳定的激光传输世界纪录。这些技术一起使激光信号可以从一个点发送到另一点,而不受大气干扰。Lead author Benjamin Dix-Matthews, a Ph.D. student at ICRAR and UWA, said the technique effectively eliminates atmospheric turbulence. "We can correct for atmospheric turbulence in 3-D, that is, left-right, up-down and, critically, along the line of flight," he said. "It's as if the moving atmosphere has been removed and doesn't exist. It allows us to send highly stable laser signals through the atmosphere while retaining the quality of the original signal."主要作者本杰明·迪克斯·马修斯(Benjamin Dix-Matthews),博士学位。 ICRAR和UWA的一名学生说,该技术有效地消除了大气湍流。他说:“我们可以校正3-D的大气湍流,即左右,上下,关键是沿着飞行路线。” “好像移动的气氛已经被去除并且不存在。它使我们能够通过大气发送高度稳定的激光信号,同时保持原始信号的质量。”The result is the world's most precise method for comparing the flow of time between two separate locations using a laser system transmitted through the atmosphere.结果是世界上最精确的方法,它使用通过大气传输的激光系统比较两个单独位置之间的时间流。One of the self-guiding optical terminals on its telescope mount on the roof of a building at the CNES campus in Toulouse. Credit: ICRAR/ UWA望远镜上的一个自导光学终端安装在图卢兹CNES校园的一栋建筑物的屋顶上。信用:ICRAR / UWAICRAR-UWA senior researcher Dr. Sascha Schediwy said the research has exciting applications. "If you have one of these optical terminals on the ground and another on a satellite in space, then you can start to explore fundamental physics," he said. "Everything from testing Einstein's theory of general relativity more precisely than ever before, to discovering if fundamental physical constants change over time."ICRAR-UWA高级研究员Sascha Schediwy博士说,这项研究具有令人兴奋的应用。他说:“如果将这些光学终端中的一个放置在地面上,将另一个放置在太空中,则可以开始探索基本物理原理。” “从比以往任何时候都更精确地测试爱因斯坦的广义相对论,到发现基本物理常数是否随时间变化的一切。”The technology's precise measurements also have practical uses in earth science and geophysics. "For instance, this technology could improve satellite-based studies of how the water table changes over time, or to look for ore deposits underground," Dr. Schediwy said.该技术的精确测量在地球科学和地球物理学中也有实际应用。 Schediwy博士说:“例如,这项技术可以改善基于卫星的地下水位随时间变化的研究,或者寻找地下的矿床。”There are further potential benefits for optical communications, an emerging field that uses light to carry information. Optical communications can securely transmit data between satellites and Earth with much higher data rates than current radio communications.光通信还有一个潜在的好处,光通信是一个新兴的领域,使用光来承载信息。光通信可以安全地在卫星和地球之间传输数据,其数据速率比当前的无线电通信要高得多。"Our technology could help us increase the data rate from satellites to ground by orders of magnitude," Dr. Schediwy said. "The next generation of big data-gathering satellites would be able to get critical information to the ground faster."Schediwy博士说:“我们的技术可以帮助我们将卫星到地面的数据速率提高几个数量级。” “下一代大数据收集卫星将能够更快地将关键信息传递到地面。”The phase stabilization technology behind the record-breaking link was originally developed to synchronize incoming signals for the Square Kilometer Array telescope. The multi-billion-dollar telescope is set to be built in Western Australia and South Africa from 2021.打破记录的链路背后的相位稳定技术最初是为了使平方公里阵列望远镜的输入信号同步而开发的。这项价值数十亿美元的望远镜将于2021年在西澳大利亚和南非建造。 点击:查看更多物理学文章 查看更多双语译文文章 免费试用文档翻译功能 免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:phys
2021-01-25 19:56:48
Sarah Cunnane莎拉·坎南(Sarah Cunnane)Fri, January 22, 2021, 7:20 AM2021年1月22日,星期五,上午7:20Dave Ramsey says here are 10 reasons you're not getting ahead.戴夫·拉姆西(Dave Ramsey)说,以下是你不能取得成功的10个原因Talk-radio host Dave Ramsey says you can solve your money troubles just as soon as you stop causing them.广播电台主持人戴夫·拉姆西(Dave Ramsey)说,只要您停止造成金钱上的麻烦,就可以解决。The money management guru has been doling out his signature blend of tough-love financial advice and Biblical wisdom since 1992. He learned it all the hard way: In his 20s, Ramsey built a million-dollar fortune flipping houses but lost it all when banks started calling in his debts. He had to buckle down to build back up from bankruptcy.自1992年以来,这名理财大师一直在奉献他的招牌招牌建议和圣经智慧的混合体。他从所有的艰难过程中学到了:20多岁的拉姆齐(Ramsey)建造了百万美元的翻新房屋,但是当银行倒闭时开始讨债。他不得不屈服于从破产中恢复过来。Now his radio show is syndicated on more than 600 stations, and he’s the author of several books. He teaches Americans how to save more money and avoid wallowing in debt — even during the current financial crisis.现在,他的广播节目已在600多个电视台上联合发布,并且他是几本书的作者。他教美国人如何省更多的钱,避免债务沉重,即使在当前的金融危机期间也是如此。Here are 10 reasons you're not getting ahead, according to Dave Ramsey.戴夫·拉姆西(Dave Ramsey)指出,以下是你不能取得成功的10个原因:1.Don’t try to tackle your biggest debts first不要尝试先解决最大的债务Elnur / ShutterstockWhen you’re deep in debt with multiple loans, freeing yourself can seem impossible. That’s why Ramsey suggests the “debt snowball method.”如果您背负着多笔贷款的沉重债务,那么解放自己似乎就不可能了。这就是拉姆齐提出“债务滚雪球方法”的原因。Rather than start with the loan with the highest interest rate, Ramsey says to pay off the loan with the lowest balance first, making only minimum payments on the rest. The idea is that each small victory inspires you to tackle bigger challenges.拉姆齐说,与其从利率最高的贷款开始,不如先还清余额最低的贷款,其余的只付最低的钱。这个想法是,每一次小小的胜利都会激发您应对更大的挑战。“It’s more about behavior change than numbers. Once your income is freed up, you can finally use it to make progress toward your savings goals,” Ramsey explains on his website.“更多的是行为改变,而不是数字。一旦您的收入被释放,您就可以最终使用它来实现您的储蓄目标。” Ramsey在他的网站上解释道。The snowball method is one of Ramsey's most common pieces of advice but it's also controversial. If your credit score is hurting, it may be better to use an online service that can help you determine which bills to pay off first to get your score back up.雪球法是Ramsey最常见的建议之一,但也引起争议。如果您的信用评分受到影响,最好使用在线方式这项服务来帮助您确定先付清哪些账单以恢复您的分数。2.Don’t try to justify frivolous purchases不要试图证明轻率的购买是合理的borevina / Shutterstock博尔维纳/ ShutterstockIf you want to become financially independent, you’ll have to figure out where you can cut corners. That means no more lattes or new jeans.如果您想在财务上变得独立,则必须找出可以偷工减料的地方。这意味着不再需要拿铁或新牛仔裤。“But I work hard all day. I deserve it. Oh, call the wahhmbulance — we all work,” Ramsey said on his radio show.“但是我整天努力工作。我应得的。噢,叫呼呼呼唤-我们都在努力,”拉姆齐在电台节目中说。With just a bit of budgeting, most people learn they’re not nearly as strapped as they think they are. Overspending is what’s keeping Americans in debt, Ramsey says, especially the attitude that you deserve what you want.仅需一点点预算,大多数人就会知道他们并没有像他们认为的那样受困。拉姆西说,超支是让美国人背负债务的原因,尤其是您应有的态度。Each shopping trip helps fritter away your future, especially if you're not using money-saving tools including a free browser add-on that helps you find better prices online.每次购物旅行都会帮助您摆脱将来的烦恼,尤其是如果您没有使用省钱的工具,包括免费的浏览器附加程序,可以帮助您在网上找到更优惠的价格。3.Don’t buy with a credit card what you can buy with cash不要用信用卡购买可以用现金购买的东西Jacob Lund / Shutterstock雅各布·隆德/ ShutterstockRamsey says you don’t need fancy software to help you save. Once you’ve worked out your monthly budget, withdraw that much cash from the bank and separate it into envelopes labeled gas, groceries, entertainment and whatever else you need.拉姆齐说,您不需要精美的软件即可帮助您节省开支。计算完每月预算后,请从银行提取大量现金,然后将其分成标有汽油,食品,娱乐和其他所需物品的信封。“Anytime you want to know how much money you have left to spend in your budget category, just take a peek in your envelope,” Ramsey said in a blog post.拉姆齐在博客中说:“任何时候,您都想知道预算中还有多少钱可以花,只看一眼就可以了。”It may sound old school, but the envelope system forces you to think about your expenses. It’s so easy to tap a credit card and forget about it, while cash makes you watch the money leave.听起来有些老套,但是信封系统迫使您考虑费用。轻按信用卡即可忘却它,这很容易,而现金使您可以看着钱离开。4.Don’t buy new不要买新的4 PM production / ShutterstockAssuming your car has four wheels, that’s good enough for Dave Ramsey. Buying the newest model of anything is a waste.假设您的汽车有四个车轮,对于戴夫·拉姆齐(Dave Ramsey)来说就足够了。购买任何事物的最新模型都是一种浪费。“If you’re tired of the kitchen countertops or want to upgrade to the latest and greatest cellphone, think again … Don’t steal from your needs to pay for your wants,” he writes on his blog.他在博客中写道:“如果您厌倦了厨房台面,或者想升级到最新,最好的手机,请三思……不要从需求中窃取资金来满足您的需求。”Ramsey says no one should buy a new car, unless they have a net worth in excess of $1 million. Cars lose a huge chunk of their value as soon as they’re driven off the lot.拉姆齐(Ramsey)说,除非他们的净资产超过100万美元。汽车一被抛弃,就会立即失去其价值的很大一部分。“The average millionaire drives a four-year-old car with 41,000 miles on it, and of course it’s paid for. They haven’t made a car payment in decades, which is why they’re millionaires,” he adds.“普通的百万富翁开着一辆有41,000英里行驶里程的四岁汽车,这当然是有偿的。他们几十年来没有付过车费,这就是为什么他们是百万富翁。”他补充道。5.Don’t spend when you can invest不要在可以投资的时候花钱 Andrii Yalanskyi / ShutterstockWhen Ramsey appeared on Larry King Live in 2015, the Dow was doing well and unemployment was steadily decreasing. King wanted to know: If the economy’s so great, why are Americans still suffocating in debt?当拉姆齐(Ramsey)在2015年出现在拉里·金(Larry King)Live上时,道指表现良好,失业率稳步下降。金想知道:如果经济如此好,为什么美国人仍然负债累累?Ramsey said wage stagnation has played a significant factor, but that’s no excuse to let consumers off the hook.拉姆西(Ramsey)表示,工资停滞是一个重要因素,但这并不是让消费者摆脱困境的借口。“Americans have a spending problem,” he told King.他对金说:“美国人有消费问题。”“In order to make money on your mutual fund and your 401(k), you have to put money into your 401(k). If you had been doing that [since the 2008 recession] ... your money would have tripled."“为了在共同基金和401(k)上赚钱,您必须将资金投入401(k)。如果您一直这样做(自2008年经济衰退以来)……您的钱将会增加两倍。”You don’t reap the benefits of a flourishing economy by consuming even more; it’s investing that brings wealth. Set aside 15% of your monthly income, build it up, and then put it into the market at regular intervals.您不会通过消费更多而获得繁荣的经济的好处;带来财富的投资。拨出您月收入的15%,积累起来,然后定期将其投入市场。If you're not confident in your ability to invest on your own, you might lean on a fidicuary financial planner to help you with your portfolio.如果您对自己的投资能力不自信,则可以依靠财务理财师来帮助您进行投资。6.Don’t go to a fancy college不要去上名牌大学ssguy / ShutterstockYou’re at the top of your class, so why wouldn’t you attend the best school?您是班上的佼佼者,那么为什么不上最好的学校?According to a 2018 university study, three quarters of all jobs that pay more than $35,000 are held by people with some form of higher education — but don’t set yourself up for failure by saddling yourself with debt.根据2018年的大学研究,所有工作中有四分之三的薪水超过35,000美元由受过某种形式高等教育的人持有,但不要因背负债务而使自己陷入失败。In 2020, the total amount of student debt in the United States is an estimate $1.56 trillion, and graduates are eager to find ways to deal with their unpaid loans.到2020年,美国学生债务总额为估计值总额为1.56万亿美元,毕业生渴望找到处理未偿还贷款的方法。Ramsey says the important thing is getting a decent education without taking out a loan — not the prestige of an Ivy League school.拉姆齐说,重要的是在不借贷的情况下获得体面的教育-而不是常春藤盟校的声望。“That’s the biggest lie we’ve ever believed: where you went to school has some correlation with your future success. It has almost zero,” he told CNBC last year.“这是我们有史以来最大的谎言:您上学的地方与您未来的成功有一定的联系。它几乎为零。”他去年告诉CNBC。7.Don’t splurge once you graduate毕业后不要挥霍mimagephotography / ShutterstockWhen you leave school and find your first real job, you might feel like you’ve got money to burn. Slow your roll.当您离开学校并找到第一份真正的工作时,您可能会觉得自己有钱在燃烧。放慢脚步。“I tell young people who call our radio show that you’re already used to living like a broke college kid, so keep living like one until you start making grown-up money,” Ramsey told CNBC in 2018.Ramsey在2018年对CNBC表示:“我告诉参加我们广播节目的年轻人,您已经习惯了像一个破烂的大学生那样生活,所以要保持像一个人那样生活,直到您开始赚大钱为止。”You don’t have to resort to eating instant noodles and drinking instant coffee; it’s more about the mentality of making every penny count.您不必求助于吃方便面和喝速溶咖啡;这更多地是要精打细算的心态。By limiting your expenses and buying necessities on the cheap, Ramsey said, “you can clean up any debt you might have, build up your emergency fund and start saving for the things you want and need down the road like a better car and a down payment on a house.”通过限制开支和廉价购买必需品,Ramsey说:“您可以清理可能欠下的债务,建立应急基金,并开始为将来想要和需要的东西储蓄,例如买一辆更好的汽车和一辆卡车。付款。”点击:查看剩下的 戴夫·拉姆西(Dave Ramsey)建议 查看更多双语译文文章 使用双语译文文档翻译功能免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:yah
2021-01-22 17:15:44
Scientists find black holes could reach 'stupendously large' sizes科学家发现黑洞可能会达到“惊人的大”尺寸by Queen Mary, University of London伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院 This computer-simulated image shows a supermassive black hole at the core of a galaxy. The black region in the center represents the black hole’s event horizon, where no light can escape the massive object’s gravitational grip. The black hole’s powerful gravity distorts space around it like a funhouse mirror. Light from background stars is stretched and s
2021-01-24 17:00:31
Light-controlled Higgs modes found in superconductors; potential sensor, computing uses超导体中的光控希格斯模式;电位传感器,计算用途by Iowa State University爱荷华州立大学This illustration shows light at trillions of pulses per second (red flash) accessing and controlling Higgs modes (gold balls) in an iron- based superconductor. Even at different energy bands, the Higgs modes interact with each other (white smoke). Credit: Illustration courtesy of Jigang Wang.该图显示了以铁为基础的超导体中每秒访问和控制希格斯模式(金球)的每秒万亿个脉冲的光(红色闪光)。即使在不同的能带
2021-01-23 17:00:01
戴夫·拉姆西:你不能取得成功的10个原因(上)8.Don’t give your kids an allowance不要给孩子零用钱paulaphoto / ShutterstockRamsey says America doesn’t have a debt crisis; it has a parenting crisis. Financial literacy starts at home, and parents are setting their kids up for failure by giving them an “allowance.”拉姆齐说,美国没有债务危机;它有育儿危机。财务知识从家庭开始,父母通过给孩子“津贴”来使他们为失败做好准备。“I just don’t like the word. Allowance kind of sounds like, ‘You’re not good enough, so I have to do something for you.’ It kind of sounds like welfare. Instead, we called it ‘commission.’ You got paid for doing chores. Work? Get paid. Don’t work? Don’t get paid,” he told CNN in 2014.“我只是不喜欢这个词。津贴听起来像是“你不够好,所以我必须为你做些事情。”听起来听起来像是福利。相反,我们称其为“佣金”。您因做家务而得到报酬。工作?得到报酬。不工作吗不要得到报酬。”他在2014年告诉CNN。Make no mistake, Ramsey said, all the work he made his kids do was age- appropriate. “You’re 4 years old, we’re not going to send you off to the salt mines,” he joked.毫无疑问,拉姆齐说,他让孩子们做的所有工作都是适合年龄的。他开玩笑说:“您4岁,我们不会派您去盐矿。”9.Don’t try to get rich too quickly不要试图过快致富Constantin Stanciu / Shutterstock康斯坦丁·斯坦丘/ ShutterstockWhile it’s great to come into a sudden windfall, Ramsey says it’s better to build a fortune slowly and sustainably.拉姆齐(Ramsey)表示,虽然突如其来的意外之财真是太好了,但最好还是缓慢而可持续地积累财富。“Ninety percent of the [millionaires] I have met did it gradually,” Ramsey said on his radio show in 2017. “I’m not against getting money quickly ... but there are all kinds of problems that go with it when it comes quickly.... How often have we seen the young athlete get money and it destroys their life?”拉姆西在2017年的广播节目中说:“我遇到的[百万富翁]中有90%是逐步做到这一点的。我并不反对迅速赚钱...但是当它很快到来的时候会有各种各样的问题.... 。我们有多少次看到年轻的运动员得到钱却毁了他们的生活?”He said the Book of Proverbs sums it up: “Wealth grown hastily will dwindle.”他说箴言书对此进行了总结:“仓促增长的财富将会减少。”His advice isn’t just based on Biblical wisdom; Ramsey is also speaking from experience. He gained and lost a $4 million portfolio flipping houses before age 30.他的建议不仅仅基于圣经的智慧。拉姆齐也是根据经验发言。在30岁之前,他赚了400万美元的投资组合却失去了一笔。10.Don’t buy an engagement ring from a jewelry store不要从珠宝店购买订婚戒指Pressmaster / ShutterstockYou want to dazzle her, but you shouldn’t start your life together with a pile of debt.您想让她眼花一亮,但您不应该带着沉重的债务开始自己的生活。On the Bobby Bones radio show in 2019, Ramsey was asked about the popular rule of thumb that helps suitors decide how much to spend on an engagement ring.在2019年的Bobby Bones广播节目中,Ramsey被问到流行的经验法则,该法则可帮助求婚者确定订婚戒指上的花费。“The jewelry stores say three months’ [salary]. I say one month,” he quipped.“珠宝店说,三个月的薪水。我说一个月,”他打趣道。“Diamonds are like furniture. They’ve got a huge market, so where you buy it can be very, very important. If you can go to a diamond broker or someone who knows a little bit about diamonds, even a high-end pawn shop, you can get [rings] for a quarter on the dollar. And really good stones.”钻石就像家具。他们拥有巨大的市场,因此在哪里购买可能非常重要。如果您可以去钻石经纪人或对钻石了解一点的人,甚至是一家高档典当行,都可以用四分之一美元的价格买到[戒指]。和真正的好玉石点击:查看更多国外财经文章 查看更多双语译文文章 使用双语译文文档翻译功能免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:yah
2021-01-22 17:20:10
Molecule guides stem cells to damaged brain tissue分子将干细胞引导至受损的脑组织Researchers altered a molecule that is naturally produced by the body to safely guide stem cells to damaged brain tissue.研究人员改变了人体天然产生的分子,以安全地将干细胞引导至受损的脑组织。Mice with a fatal brain disease had delayed onset of symptoms and improved survival when given the new molecule and neural stem cells.当使用新的分子和神经干细胞时,患有致命性脑病的小鼠可延迟症状发作并提高生存率。With further development, the approach may have applications for human disease.随着进一步的发展,该方法可能会应用于
2021-01-19 17:45:43
Could we harness energy from black holes?我们可以利用黑洞中的能量吗?by Carla Cantor, Columbia University哥伦比亚大学卡拉·坎特 Plasma close to the event horizon about to be devoured by a rotating black hole. Credit: Classical And Quantum Gravity, 2015. Reproduced By Permission of IOP Publishing接近事件视界的等离子体将被旋转的黑洞吞噬。图片来源:Classic and Quantum Gravity,2015年。A remarkable prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity—the theory that connects space, time, and gravity—is that rotating black holes have enormous amounts of energy available to be tapped.爱因斯坦的广义相对论(将空间,时间和引力联系起来的理论)的一个杰出预言是,旋转的黑洞有大量可利用的能量。For the last 50 years, scientists have tried to come up with methods to unleash this power. Nobel physicist Roger Penrose theorized that a particle disintegration could draw energy from a black hole; Stephen Hawking proposed that black holes could release energy through quantum mechanical emission; while Roger Blandford and Roman Znajek suggested electromagnetic torque as a main agent of energy extraction.在过去的50年中,科学家们试图想出释放这种力量的方法。诺贝尔物理学家罗杰·彭罗斯(Roger Penrose)提出了一种理论,即粒子崩解可能会从黑洞中吸收能量。史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)提出黑洞可以通过量子机械发射来释放能量。而罗杰·布兰福德(Roger Blandford)和罗曼·扎纳克(Roman Znajek)则建议将电磁转矩作为能量提取的主要手段。Now, in a study published in the journal Physical Review D, physicists Luca Comisso from Columbia University and Felipe Asenjo from Universidad Adolfo Ibanez in Chile, found a new way to extract energy from black holes by breaking and rejoining magnetic field lines near the event horizon, the point from which nothing, not even light, can escape the black hole's gravitational pull.现在,在《物理评论D》(Physical Review D)杂志上发表的一项研究中,哥伦比亚大学的物理学家Luca Comisso和智利阿道夫·伊巴内斯大学的Felipe Asenjo找到了一种新的方法,可以通过打破并重新结合事件视界附近的磁场线来从黑洞中提取能量。 ,一点,甚至没有光都无法逃离黑洞的引力。"Black holes are commonly surrounded by a hot 'soup' of plasma particles that carry a magnetic field," said Luca Comisso, research scientist at Columbia University and first author on the study.哥伦比亚大学研究科学家,该研究的第一作者卢卡·科米索(Luca Comisso)表示:“黑洞通常被带有磁场的等离子颗粒的热'汤'包围着。”"Our theory shows that when magnetic field lines disconnect and reconnect, in just the right way, they can accelerate plasma particles to negative energies and large amounts of black hole energy can be extracted."“我们的理论表明,当磁场线以正确的方式断开和重新连接时,它们可以将等离子体粒子加速为负能量,并且可以提取出大量的黑洞能量。”This finding could allow astronomers to better estimate the spin of black holes, drive black hole energy emissions, and might even provide a source of energy for the needs of an advanced civilization, Comisso said.Comisso说,这一发现可以使天文学家更好地估计黑洞的自旋,驱动黑洞的能量排放,甚至可以为先进文明的需求提供能量来源。Comisso and Asenjo built their theory on the premise that reconnecting magnetic fields accelerates plasma particles in two different directions. One plasma flow is pushed against the black hole's spin, while the other is propelled in the spin's direction and can escape the clutches of the black hole, which releases power if the plasma swallowed by the black hole has negative energy.Comisso和Asenjo建立理论的前提是重新连接磁场会在两个不同的方向上加速等离子体粒子。一种等离子流被推向黑洞的自旋,而另一种则沿自旋的方向推进,可以逃离黑洞的离合器,如果黑洞吞下的等离子具有负能量,则释放动力。"It is like a person could lose weight by eating candy with negative calories," said Comisso, who explained that essentially a black hole loses energy by eating negative- energy particles. "This might sound weird," he said, "but it can happen in a region called the ergosphere, where the spacetime continuum rotates so fast that every object spins in the same direction as the black hole."Comisso说:“就像一个人通过吃负热量的糖果可以减轻体重一样。”他解释说,黑洞本质上是通过吃负能量粒子而失去能量的。他说:“这听起来可能很奇怪,但是它可能发生在一个称为“遍及地球”的区域,在该区域中,时空连续体旋转得如此之快,以至于每个物体都以与黑洞相同的方向旋转。”Inside the ergosphere, magnetic reconnection is so extreme that the plasma particles are accelerated to velocities approaching the speed of light.在人体工圈内部,磁性重新连接非常极端,以致等离子体粒子被加速到接近光速的速度。Asenjo, professor of physics at the Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez and coauthor on the study, explained that the high relative velocity between captured and escaping plasma streams is what allows the proposed process to extract massive amounts of energy from the black hole.阿道夫·伊巴涅斯大学的物理学教授,该研究的合著者阿森霍解释说,被捕获和逃逸的等离子体流之间的高相对速度是使拟议的过程能够从黑洞中提取大量能量的原因。"We calculated that the process of plasma energization can reach an efficiency of 150 percent, much higher than any power plant operating on Earth," Asenjo said. "Achieving an efficiency greater than 100 percent is possible because black holes leak energy, which is given away for free to the plasma escaping from the black hole."“我们计算出,等离子体通电过程的效率可以达到150%,远高于地球上运行的任何发电厂,” Asenjo说。 “由于黑洞会泄漏能量,因此有可能获得大于100%的效率,而能量会免费释放给从黑洞逸出的等离子体。”The process of energy extraction envisioned by Comisso and Asenjo might be already operating in a large number of black holes. That may be what is driving black hole flares—powerful bursts of radiation that can be detected from Earth.Comisso和Asenjo设想的能量提取过程可能已经在大量黑洞中运行。这可能是造成黑洞耀斑的原因-可以从地球探测到的强大的辐射爆发。"Our increased knowledge of how magnetic reconnection occurs in the vicinity of the black hole might be crucial for guiding our interpretation of current and future“我们对黑洞附近如何发生磁重新连接的了解增加,对于指导我们对当前和未来的解释至关重要。telescope observations of black holes, such as the ones by the Event Horizon Telescope," Asenjo said.望远镜观测黑洞,例如事件地平线望远镜的黑洞。”While it may sound like the stuff of science fiction, mining energy from black holes could be the answer to our future power needs.虽然这听起来像是科幻小说,但从黑洞中开采能量可能会满足我们未来的电力需求。"Thousands or millions of years from now, humanity might be able to survive around a black hole without harnessing energy from stars," Comisso said. "It is essentially a technological problem. If we look at the physics, there is nothing that prevents it."科米索说:“从现在起的数千年或数百万年中,人类可能能够在不利用恒星能量的情况下在黑洞附近生存。” “这本质上是一个技术问题。如果我们看物理学,没有什么可以阻止它的。”The study, Magnetic reconnection as a mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes, was funded by the National Science Foundation's Windows on the Universe initiative, NASA, and Chile's National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development.这项名为“磁重连接作为从旋转黑洞中提取能量的机制的研究”,是由美国国家科学基金会的“宇宙之窗”计划,美国国家航空航天局和智利国家科学和技术发展基金会资助的。Vyacheslav (Slava) Lukin, a program director at NSF, said the Foundation aims to catalyzes new theoretical efforts based on frontier observations at facilities such as the EHT, bringing together theoretical physics and observational astronomy under one roof.NSF的项目主管Vyacheslav(Slava)Lukin表示,基金会的目标是基于EHT等设施的前沿观测,促进新的理论工作,将理论物理学和观测天文学融合在一起。"We look forward to the potential translation of seemingly esoteric studies of black hole astrophysics into the practical realm," Lukin said.卢金说:“我们期待着将黑洞天体物理学似乎深奥的研究潜在地转化为实际领域。”"The ideas and concepts discussed in this work are truly fascinating," said Vyacheslav (Slava) Lukin, a program director at the National Science Foundation. He said NSF aims to catalyze new theoretical efforts based on frontier observations, bringing together theoretical physics and observational astronomy under one roof.国家科学基金会项目负责人维亚切斯拉夫(Slava)卢金说:“这项工作中讨论的想法和概念确实令人着迷。”他说,国家科学基金会的目的是基于前沿观测,促进新的理论工作,将理论物理学和观测天文学融合在一起。"We look forward to the potential translation of seemingly esoteric studies of black hole astrophysics into the practical realm," he added.他补充说:“我们期待将似乎深奥的黑洞天体物理学研究转化为实际领域。”点击:查看更多双语译文文章 查看更多物理学文章 使用双语译文翻译功能 免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。来源于:phys
2021-01-17 18:05:44
Intimate associations between SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondria suggest new angles of attackSARS-CoV-2与线粒体之间的密切联系表明新的攻击角度by John Hewitt , Phys.org约翰·休伊特(Phys.org) Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a dying cell (blue) heavily infected with SARS-CoV-2 (yellow), the virus that causes COVID-19. Credit: NIAID Integrated Research Facility, Fort Detrick, Maryland.严重感染SARS-CoV-2(黄色)的病毒(即将导致COVID-19的病毒)的垂死细胞(蓝色)的彩色扫描电子显微照片。图片提供:马里兰州Fort Detrick的NIAID综合研究设施。 As one wise pundit recently observed, "everybody is a virologist now." For the many people whose interest in biology formerly began and ended with "the mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell," a second axiom can now be offered, namely, that the virus is the thief of power. In other words, what the mitochondria giveth, the virus taketh away.正如一位明智的专家最近观察到的那样,“现在每个人都是病毒学家。”对于许多以前对生物学感兴趣的人来说,其始于和结束于“线粒体是细胞的动力源”,现在可以提供第二个公理,即病毒是力量的窃贼。换句话说,只要线粒体产生,病毒就会带走。It is only through the massive oxidative capabilities of mitochondria that cells of the immune system can generate enough energy within a sufficiently short period of time to power an effective immune response. This response includes massive short- order construction projects where cascading waves of signaling factors, antibodies and the armies of clones that pump them out are hastily hardscrabbled together. It is this same power that a virus hijacks upon gaining entry to a cell to use for copying, transcribing and translating their genomes (not always in that specific order) to almost exponentially replicate and propel themselves through the body at large.只有通过线粒体的强大氧化能力,免疫系统的细胞才能在足够短的时间内产生足够的能量,以驱动有效的免疫反应。这种回应包括大规模的短期建设项目,其中匆匆忙忙地拼凑了一系列信号因子,抗体和将其泵出的克隆军队。病毒具有进入细胞的劫持能力,即用于复制,转录和翻译其基因组(并非总是按照特定顺序),从而几乎以指数方式复制并推动自身进入整个人体。It should therefore be no surprise that mitochondria and viruses are, at least in a molecular sense, quite well aware of each other. For example, it has been shown that the Orf9b accessory protein of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the mitochondrial因此,线粒体和病毒至少在分子意义上彼此非常清楚也就不足为奇了。例如,已显示SARS-CoV-2的Orf9b辅助蛋白与线粒体相互作用transport protein TOM70, while Orf9c interacts with respiratory complex I. The Nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) has been localized to nuclear and mitochondrial prohibitins which in turn form a 16-20 subunit ring at the inner membrane. Prohibits are also believed to act as viral receptors for the Chikungunya and Dengue 2 viruses.转运蛋白TOM70,而Orf9c与呼吸道复合体I相互作用。非结构蛋白2(NSP2)已定位于核和线粒体禁止素,后者在内膜上又形成16-20个亚基环。人们还认为,禁忌可以作为基孔肯雅热和登革热2病毒的病毒受体。In a paper recently published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, researchers from Texas Tech University explore the idea that some viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, could even replicate within mitochondria-derived structures. The authors say "mitochondria-derived" because in the absence of full dynamic imaging of double-membraned vesicle (DMV) formation within associated inclusions of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), golgi and virus, the necessary actions that seemingly must occur for the virus to complete its life cycle can only be inferred.在最近发表在《衰老神经科学的前沿》杂志上的一篇论文中,得克萨斯理工大学的研究人员探索了这样一种想法,即包括SARS-CoV-2在内的某些病毒甚至可以在线粒体衍生的结构中复制。作者之所以说“源于线粒体”,是因为在线粒体,内质网(ER),高尔基体和病毒的相关夹杂物内没有完整的双膜囊泡(DMV)形成的完整动态成像的情况下,表面活性剂似乎必须发生病毒只能完成其生命周期的推断。Mitochondria closely associated with the ER where they are embraced by external rings of contractile dynamin-related peptide (DRP1) molecules which squeeze them down to diameters small enough for spontaneous fusion and budding to occur. The authors note that in the original SARS-CoV-1, ORF-9b enhances mitochondrial fusion and reduces the levels of Drp1. Budding off DMVs packed with their own mtDNA nucleoids, which then fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell, is important business for mitochondria. Exporting these highly immunogenic lures are one线粒体与内质网紧密相关,它们被可收缩的动力蛋白相关肽(DRP1)分子的外环所包围,从而将它们压缩到足够小的直径,以使其自发融合和发芽。作者注意到,在原始的SARS-CoV-1中,ORF-9b增强了线粒体融合并降低了Drp1的水平。堆积有自己的mtDNA核苷酸并随后与细胞质膜融合的DMV对线粒体而言是重要的业务。出口这些高度免疫原性的诱饵是其中之一way white blood cells sacrifice their own, in a sense, to ramp up immune responses. This all sounds a little familiar—during its lifecycle, SARS viruses must clothe their own genetic material in suitable double membrane form before beginning its transcellular journal.在某种意义上,白细胞会牺牲自己的细胞以增强免疫反应。这一切听起来有些耳熟,在其生命周期中,SARS病毒必须以合适的双膜形式覆盖自己的遗传物质,然后才能开始其跨细胞日记。In a another paper recently published in Scientific Reports, Pinchas Cohen and his team compared mitochondrial-COVID interactions to those of other viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, seasonal influenza A virus and human parainfluenza virus在最近发表在《科学报告》上的另一篇论文中,Pinchas Cohen和他的团队将线粒体与COVID的相互作用与其他病毒的相互作用进行了比较,包括呼吸道合胞病毒,季节性A型流感病毒和人副流感病毒3. One important finding was that in SARS-CoV-2, the levels of respiratory complex I components were reduced. Reduced complex I activity can also reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The authors describe how host innate immunity is regulated by mitochondrial antiviral signaling proteins (MAVS). Under normal conditions, these MAVs interact with mitochondrial fusion factors like MFN2. However, after infection, mitochondria are tethered to the ER by MFN-2, whereupon the MAVS interacts with important kinases, namely, TANK binding kinase 1, IKKA, and IKKB.3.一个重要发现是,在SARS-CoV-2中,呼吸道复合物I组分的水平降低了。降低的复杂I活性也可以降低活性氧(ROS)的水平。作者介绍了线粒体抗病毒信号蛋白(MAVS)如何调节宿主固有免疫力。在正常情况下,这些MAV与线粒体融合因子(如MFN2)相互作用。但是,感染后,线粒体通过MFN-2束缚在ER上,于是MAVS与重要的激酶(TANK结合激酶1,IKKA和IKKB)相互作用。Other new research shows that SARS-CoV-2 virus may go even further, suggesting that in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with COVID-19, the virus deliberately manipulates the metabolic functions of mitochondria to their own advantage. In particular, the authors show increases in the mitokine FGF-21, and also increases in glycolysis. They propose that since FGF-21 correlates with disease severity, it could serve as a biomarker for COVID-19-related mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondria play a key role in the initiation and development of其他新的研究表明,SARS-CoV-2病毒可能会进一步传播,这表明在COVID-19患者的外周血单核细胞中,该病毒故意操纵线粒体的代谢功能以发挥自身的优势。尤其是,作者显示出丝氨酸激酶FGF-21的增加,以及糖酵解的增加。他们认为,由于FGF-21与疾病的严重程度相关,因此它可以作为COVID-19相关线粒体功能障碍的生物标志物。由于线粒体在启动和发展中起着关键作用cytokine storm, specific mitochondrial pathways in immune cells might be targeted clinically.对于细胞因子风暴,免疫细胞中特定的线粒体途径可能是临床目标。To get some more perspective, it is worth mentioning a few other important details regarding the SARS-CoV-2 genome. At around 30 kilobases long, it is twice the size of mtDNA, and over three times as long as the HIV genome. HIV is also a positive sense RNA virus; however, it is double-stranded, and integrates within the host cell genome. Although SARS-CoV-2 normally completes its life cycle in the cytoplasm, some recent evidence suggests that it, too, can be reverse-transcribed and integrated into nuclear DNA. While mtDNA is normally entirely circulatized (save perhaps in some heart muscle cells), SARS-CoV-2 can sometimes be circularized into circRNAs of many different sizes, although the implications of this are unknown. Like host nuclear DNA and mtDNA, the SARS-CoV-2 genome also contains unique G- quadruplex formations. These often enigmatic structural formations at specific guanine repeats are also potential therapeutic targets.为了获得更多的观点,值得一提的是有关SARS-CoV-2基因组的其他一些重要细节。它长约30千个碱基,是mtDNA的两倍,是HIV基因组的三倍以上。艾滋病毒也是一种正向RNA病毒。然而,它是双链的,并整合在宿主细胞基因组内。尽管SARS-CoV-2通常在细胞质中完成其生命周期,但最近的一些证据表明,它也可以逆转录并整合到核DNA中。虽然通常将mtDNA完全环化(也许可以保存在某些心肌细胞中),但SARS-CoV-2有时可以环化为许多不同大小的circRNA,尽管其含义尚不清楚。像宿主核DNA和mtDNA一样,SARS-CoV-2基因组也包含独特的G-四链体形成。这些在特定鸟嘌呤重复序列上通常是难以理解的结构形成也是潜在的治疗靶标。No SARS cabinet of curiosities would be complete without some ode to the still largely inexplicable furin cleavage site (FCS). While a few recombination没有对仍然很大程度上无法解释的弗林蛋白酶切割位点(FCS)的某些颂歌,SARS的好奇心就不会完整。虽然几重组theories have been bantered about, the actual mechanism is still an open question. For inspiration to answer this vexing question, we offer the charming and now famous genetics how-to video from the Cambridge iGEM Institute.理论已经开玩笑了,实际的机制仍然是一个悬而未决的问题。为了回答这个棘手的问题,我们提供了来自剑桥iGEM研究所的迷人而又著名的遗传学入门视频。 点击:查看更多生物学文章 查看更多双语译文文章 使用双语译文文档翻译功能免责声明:福昕翻译只充当翻译功能,此文内容及相关信息仅为传递更多信息之目的,仅代表作者个人观点,与本网站无关,版权归原始网站所有。仅供读者参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若需要浏览原文、下载参考文献等,请自行搜索文中提到的原文网站进行阅读。 来源于:phys
2021-01-18 19:28:42